Electric Furnace Enhanced Smelting Technology


    Electric furnace is one of the indispensable smelting equipments in special steel production. At present, the competition in the industry is fierce. It takes about 45 minutes to tap steel with conventional converter, and about 70 minutes to tap steel with electric furnace. Therefore, how to further shorten the smelting time of electric arc furnace, reduce consumption, and then reduce the cost by a large margin is the inherent need of the development of many special steel enterprises. The commonly used techniques for strengthening EAF smelting are:
    1. The Technology of Electric Furnace Mixing Hot Metal
    Hot metal has a certain amount of physical heat, and contains high calorific value elements such as carbon, silicon and manganese. Oxygen blowing and oxidation can release a large amount of chemical heat, which makes scrap steel red-hot quickly and easy to cut with oxygen. Therefore, by adding hot metal, the smelting time can be shortened and the smelting efficiency can be improved.
    Adding method: The furnace adopts the method of adding molten iron to the top of the furnace, that is, adding the first material about 50% of the total burden weight, then passing through the well with electricity for about 8 minutes, blackout and switching off the furnace cover. The lifting equipment lifts the ladle with molten iron to the top of the furnace, and pours the molten iron into the furnace from the top of the furnace at the hole of the aligned electrode for about 3 minutes, and then covers the furnace cover for smelting.
    2. RCB Gun Injection Technology
    RCB spray gun has strong decarbonization ability, which is the technical guarantee for hot metal charging. RCB spray gun is usually installed on the wall of electric arc furnace. Oxygen jet of lance oxygen lance sprays into molten pool at supersonic speed and keeps a long cluster form. It has strong penetration ability, intense metallurgical reaction will occur, decarbonization speed will be accelerated, and molten pool can be well agitated, which is conducive to uniform temperature and chemical composition of molten steel. In order to ensure the utilization rate of oxygen injected by RCB gun, oxygen penetration ability and high decarbonization speed, sufficient pressure of oxygen must be ensured. However, excessive decarbonization reaction will cause damage to refractory lining and water-cooled furnace wall. The general control pressure is 1.2 Mpa and the decarbonization rate is 0.06-0.08% C/min.
    3, efficient foam slag technology
    The foam slag process is the best choice for high impedance super high power electric arc furnace. Good foamed slag can expand the interface of metallurgical reaction and facilitate the migration of the reaction products. At the same time, a good submerged arc operation can be achieved, and the thermal efficiency of the arc can be greatly improved.
    The oxygen injected into the RCB gun oxidizes the carbon in the molten pool and produces a large amount of CO gas, which forms the condition for foaming slag in a short time. With the oxidation of carbon in the molten pool, the carbon content in the molten pool gradually decreases. It is necessary to spray carbon powder into the furnace in time to maintain the slag foaming. On the other hand, it can also reduce the content of iron oxide in the slag and increase the yield of the metal. As the reaction proceeds, the basicity of the slag decreases, and the slag will become unstable. In this way, the lime should be added in batches in order to improve the basicity of the slag.

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